Hydrocephalus is the buildup of fluid in the cavities (ventricles) deep within the brain. The excess fluid increases the size of the ventricles and puts pressure on the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid normally flows through the ventricles and bathes the brain and spinal column. But the pressure of too much cerebrospinal fluid associated with hydrocephalus can damage brain tissues and cause a range of impairments in brain function. Hydrocephalus can happen at any age, but it occurs more frequently among infants and adults 60 and over. Surgical treatment for hydrocephalus can restore and maintain normal cerebrospinal fluid levels in the brain. Many different therapies are often required to manage symptoms or functional impairments resulting from hydrocephalus.The signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus vary somewhat by age of onset.
Infants:An unusually large head, A rapid increase in the size of the head, A bulging or tense soft spot (fontanel) on the top of the head, Vomiting, Sleepiness, Irritability, Poor feeding ,Seizures,Eyes fixed downward (sunsetting of the eyes),Deficits in muscle tone and strength, Poor responsiveness to touch, Poor growth
Among toddlers and older children:Headache, Blurred or double vision ,Eyes fixed downward (sunsetting of eyes),Abnormal enlargement of a toddler's head, Sleepiness or lethargy, Nausea or vomiting, Unstable balance ,Poor coordination ,Poor appetite, Seizures Urinary incontinence, Irritability, Change in personality ,Decline in school performance, Headache, lethargy ,loss of coordination or balance,Decline in memory, concentration .
Treatment includes Ventriculo peritoneal Shunt(for communicating type)and Brain endoscopy for non-communicating type)